Analytical Instrument

Gas chromatography (GC) :

It is a common type of chromatography used in analytic chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations; GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.



Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) :

This instrument analyzes the concentration of elements in a liquid sample based on energy absorbed from certain wavelengths of light (usually 190 to 900 nm). Atomic absorption spectrophotometers typically include a flame burner to atomize the sample (most commonly a hollow cathode lamp), a monochromator, and a photon detector. Depending on the model, some atomic absorption spectrometers are equipped with a turret or fixed lamp socket that can hold multiple lamps (up to eight) to reduce downtime between samples or allow for sequential analysis.

UV-Visible spectrophotometer :

The UV-Visible spectrophotometer uses two light sources, a deuterium (D2) lamp for ultraviolet light and a tungsten (W) lamp for visible light. After bouncing off a mirror (mirror 1), the light beam passes through a slit and hits a diffraction grating. The grating can be rotated allowing for a specific wavelength to be selected. At any specific orientation of the grating, only monochromatic (single wavelength) successfully passes through a slit. A filter is used to remove unwanted higher orders of diffraction. (Recall the experiment you did last semester on Atomic Spectra) The light beam hits a second mirror before it gets split by a half mirror (half of the light is reflected, the other half passes through). One of the beams is allowed to pass through a reference cuvette (which contains the solvent only), the other passes through the sample cuvette. The intensities of the light beams are then measured at the end.


FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy) :

It is a sensitive technique particularly for identifying organic chemicals in a whole range of applications although it can also characterize some inorganics. Examples include paints, adhesives, resins, polymers, coatings and drugs. It is a particularly useful tool in isolating and characterizing organic contamination.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC :

High performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in analysis. This page looks at how it is carried out and shows how it uses the same principles as in thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography is basically a highly improved form of column chromatography. Instead of a solvent being allowed to drip through a column under gravity, it is forced through under high pressures of up to 400 atmospheres. That makes it much faster. It also allows you to use a very much smaller particle size for the column packing material which gives a much greater surface area for interactions between the stationary phase and the molecules flowing past it. This allows a much better separation of the components of the mixture. The other major improvement over column chromatography concerns the detection methods which can be used. These methods are highly automated and extremely sensitive.



CHNS/O Elemental Analyzer :

It is a powerful instrument for the rapid determination of the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen content in organic and other types of materials. It has the capability of handling a wide variety of sample types in the field of pharmaceuticals, polymers, chemicals, environmental and energy, including solids, liquids, volatile and viscous samples. Based on the classical Pregl-Dumas method, samples are combusted in a pure oxygen environment, with the resultant combustion gases measured in an automated fashion. The design has been field-proven in thousands of laboratories around the world. High-speed microprocessor control, solid-state components and built-in diagnostics provide confidence in performance and reliability.


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